The development and regulation of "mixed" standards for the organization of teaching. Comparing processes of transfer (Spain, Ireland, and India, approx. 1840-1900)


The 19th century witnessed a profound transformation in the organization of school instruction. Old patterns of unsystematic communication in the classroom were replaced by systematic interactions. In the course of a long international discussion on the organization of teaching, age-graded teaching scenarios gradually emerged and prevailed. As the monitorial system and its systematic use of children as teachers (also known as system of mutual instruction and Lancasterian system), which had been extremely popular at the beginning of the 19th century, became increasingly discredited, various "mixed" teaching systems sought to realize the intended systematization of classroom interactions by combining elements of the monitorial system with age-graded group instruction carried out by adult teachers. Although these "mixed" systems formed an important stage in the development of modern graded teaching, research has largely ignored them so far. Conceptualized as a comparison of different transfer processes, the project investigates the emergence and the implementation of "mixed" teaching systems in France and England as well as the transfer and the implementation of these systems in seveal peripheral contexts in Europe as well as in selected colonial settings. More specifically, the project deals with the formation, the transfer, and the implementation of two reference models of "mixed" teaching systems that were of particular importance in the international context: the French enseignement simultané-mutuel and its tranfer to Spain and the English pupil teachers system and its tranfer to Ireland and India


Principal Investigators
Caruso, Marcelo Prof. Dr. (Details) (History of Education)

Duration of Project
Start date: 08/2012
End date: 10/2017

Last updated on 2020-17-11 at 10:53